Too long? Scientists discovered that eating raw, crushed garlic causes an upregulation in the genes responsible for anti-cancer metabolism, ie. immunity and apoptosis.
A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans.
Eat garlic! Crush it and let it rest about 10 minutes prior to using it. In the study, they mixed crushed garlic with butter and spread it on bread. That sounds fantastic! If you don't eat much bread, I'm sure you can find something to spread garlic butter on.
BACKGROUND:Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease.
OBJECTIVE:We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans.
METHODS:We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h.
RESULTS:The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial was also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture.
CONCLUSION:These data indicate that the bioactivity of garlic is multifaceted and includes activation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis, and xenobiotic metabolism in humans and Mono Mac 6 cells. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293591.
This study did not look at cooked garlic, just raw.
How do YOU eat your garlic?