When I first started studying fiber, you could hardly find any papers on "prebiotics" and auto-correct usually changed it to PRObiotic, anyway. Imagine my surprise when I searched PubMed for new prebiotic papers and found 162 titles on the 59th day of the year.
What I love about prebiotics is that they put YOU in control. No need to wait for Big Pharma or Fake Science to supply you with products, you can simply choose better foods, and, of course, choose a cheap food ingredient to boost prebiotic intake even higher. You all know my favorite supplements:
Raw Potato Starch, Green Banana Flour, Hi-Maize, Inulin, or a combo supplement like Gut Garden's Resistant Starch. But please learn to identify real-food sources as well. Supplements are just that...enhancements not replacements!
|Picture From NutrientsReview.com|
Let me give you some teasers. If anyone wants the full-text to any of these, let me know and I'll see if I can find it. Do the search yourself and read them all. If you'd like to discuss these or others, please comment!
Fecal microbiota transplantation (Lubbert et al., 2017)
The human intestinal microbiome has important metabolic and immunological functions for the host and is part of the defense against pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. Antibiotics, probiotics, dietary measures, such as prebiotics, and the relatively newly established method of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT, also known as fecal microbiome transfer) all influence the intestinal microbiome. The FMT procedure comprises the transmission of fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient. The aim of this intervention is to restore a normal microbiome in patients with diseases associated with dysbiosis. The only indication for FMT is currently multiple recurrence of Clostridium difficile infections. Approximately 85% of affected patients can be successfully treated by FMT compared to only about 30% treated conventionally with vancomycin. Other possible therapeutic applications are chronic inflammatory and functional bowel diseases, insulin resistance and morbid obesity but these have to be evaluated further in clinical trials. Knowledge on the optimal donor, the best dosage and the most appropriate route of administration is still limited. A careful donor selection is necessary. The implementation of FMT in Germany is subject to the Medicines Act (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG) with a duty of disclosure and personal implementation by the attending physician. By documentation in a central register long-term effects and side effects of FMT have to be evaluated.
Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice (Hu et al., 2017)
Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus [Chaga mushroom] polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The IOP treatment increased GSH-PX and TAOC levels, and decreased TNF-α, TGF-β, lipase and trypsin levels in CP mice. It was also observed that gut microbiota in IOP treated groups were less diverse than others in terms of lower Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 estimator. IOP increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and decreased that of Firmicutes at phylum level. Bacteroidetes was found positively correlated with GSH-PX and TAOC, and Firmicutes correlated with TNF-α, TGF-β, and lipase. In conclusion, administration of IOP could regulate gut microbiota composition and diversity to a healthy profile in mice with CP, and some bacterial phylum significantly correlated with characteristic parameters.
Gut to Brain Dysbiosis: Mechanisms Linking Western Diet Consumption, the Microbiome, and Cognitive Impairment (Noble et al., 2017)
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment. We highlight evidence linking gut bacteria to altered intestinal permeability and blood brain barrier integrity, thus making the brain more vulnerable to the influx of deleterious substances from the circulation. WD consumption also increases production of endotoxin by commensal bacteria, which may promote neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. Recent findings also show that diet-induced alterations in gut microbiota impair peripheral insulin sensitivity, which is associated with hippocampal neuronal derrangements and associated mnemonic deficits. In some cases treatment with specific probiotics or prebiotics can prevent or reverse some of the deleterious impact of WD consumption on neuropsychological outcomes, indicating that targeting the microbiome may be a successful strategy for combating dietary- and metabolic-associated cognitive impairment.
Microbes, Immunity, and Behavior: Psychoneuroimmunology Meets the Microbiome (Dinan and Cryan, 2017)
There is now a large volume of evidence to support the view that the immune system is a key communication pathway between the gut and brain, which plays an important role in stress-related psychopathologies and thus provides a potentially fruitful target for psychotropic intervention. The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a diverse range of organisms and a sophisticated genomic structure. Bacteria within the gut are estimated to weigh in excess of 1 kg in the adult human and the microbes within not only produce antimicrobial peptides, short chain fatty acids, and vitamins, but also most of the common neurotransmitters found in the human brain. That the microbial content of the gut plays a key role in immune development is now beyond doubt. Early disruption of the host-microbe interplay can have lifelong consequences, not just in terms of intestinal function but in distal organs including the brain. It is clear that the immune system and nervous system are in continuous communication in order to maintain a state of homeostasis. Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of the gut microbiota in coordinating the immune-nervous systems dialogue. However, studies using germ-free animals, infective models, prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics have increased our understanding of the interplay. Early life stress can have a lifelong impact on the microbial content of the intestine and permanently alter immune functioning. That early life stress can also impact adult psychopathology has long been appreciated in psychiatry. The challenge now is to fully decipher the molecular mechanisms that link the gut microbiota, immune, and central nervous systems in a network of communication that impacts behavior patterns and psychopathology, to eventually translate these findings to the human situation both in health and disease. Even at this juncture, there is evidence to pinpoint key sites of communication where gut microbial interventions either with drugs or diet or perhaps fecal microbiota transplantation may positively impact mental health.
Human Milk Oligosaccharides Influence Neonatal Mucosal and Systemic Immunity (Donovan and Comstock, 2017)
The immune system of the infant is functionally immature and naïve. Human milk contains bioactive proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that protect the newborn and stimulate innate and adaptive immune development. This review will focus on the role human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) play in neonatal gastrointestinal and systemic immune development and function. For the past decade, intense research has been directed at defining the complexity of oligosaccharides in the milk of many species and is beginning to delineate their diverse functions. These studies have shown that human milk contains a higher concentration as well as a greater structural diversity and degree of fucosylation than the milk oligosaccharides in other species, particularly bovine milk from which many infant formulae are produced. The commercial availability of large quantities of certain HMO has furthered our understanding of the functions of specific HMO, which include protecting the infant from pathogenic infections, facilitating the establishment of the gut microbiota, promoting intestinal development, and stimulating immune maturation. Many of these actions are exerted through carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions with pathogens or host cells. Two HMOs, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), have recently been added to infant formula. Although this is a first step in narrowing the compositional gap between human milk and infant formula, it is unclear whether 1 or 2 HMO will recapitulate the complexity of actions exerted by the complex mixture of HMO ingested by breastfed infants. Thus, as more HMO become commercially available, either isolated from bovine milk or chemically or microbially synthesized, it is anticipated that more oligosaccharides will be added to infant formula either alone or in combination with other prebiotics.
Western diets, gut dysbiosis, and metabolic diseases: Are they linked? (Martinez et al., 2017)
Obesity afflicts 36.5% of the US population and 600 million individuals world-wide. Thus, it is imperative to understand the risk factors underlying metabolic disease including diet, activity level, sleep, and genetics. Another key contributory factor is the gut microbiota given its widely reported role in the development of metabolic disease. The gut microbiota, particularly its structure and function, is heavily influenced by Western style diets rich in a complex mixture of fats and high in simple sugars. In this review, the profound impact of obesity and Western diets on the gut microbiota will be illustrated, and the following research questions will be addressed: 1) to what extent do high fat diets (HFDs) alter community membership and function and does this depend upon the amount or type of fat consumed?, 2) how rapidly do dietary shifts alter gut microbial communities?, 3) are these alterations sustained or can the microbiome recover from dietary stress?, 4) how does diet drive host-microbe interactions leading to obesity?, and 5) what can be done to restore the detrimental impact of HFD on the gut microbiota? The goal of this review is to address these questions by parsing out the effects and underlying mechanisms of how Western diets impact the gut microbiota and host. By doing so, potential avenues for further exploration and strategies for microbiome-based interventions to prevent or treat diet-induced obesity may become more apparent.
Infant food applications of complex carbohydrates: Structure, synthesis, and function (Ackerman et al., 2017)
Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development. However, while breast-fed infants feature a microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, the bacterial flora of formula-fed infants is usually heterogeneous with comparatively lower levels of bifidobacteria. Thus, the objective of any infant food manufacturer is to prepare a product that results in a formula-fed infant developing a breast-fed infant-like microbiota. The goal of this focused review is to discuss the structure, synthesis, and function of carbohydrate additives that play a role in governing the composition of the infant microbiome and have other health benefits.
Modifying the infant's diet to prevent food allergy (Grimshaw et al., 2017)
Recommendations and guidelines on the prevention of food allergy have changed in recent decades. The aim of this review of the current evidence and ongoing studies is to provide a comprehensive and up to date picture of prevention of food allergy for healthcare professionals. The review was undertaken as part of the European Union funded Integrated Approaches to Food Allergy and Allergen Management (iFAAM) study. This is a wide ranging project bringing together expertise across the breadth of food allergy research. Specifically, the review discusses dietary manipulation in food allergy prevention, and covers the possible preventive strategies of allergen avoidance, early allergen introduction, general nutrition and supplements, as well as other strategies, such as prebiotics and probiotics. The review concludes that despite agreement that allergen avoidance strategies should not be undertaken for allergy prevention, there is currently no consensus regarding what actions should be recommended beyond exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4-6 months of life. Recent and upcoming trial results, which are detailed in this review, should help inform the debate and add clarity to the topic.
Effects of prebiotics on immune system and cytokine expression (Shokryazdan et al., 2017)
Nowadays, use of prebiotics as feed and food additives has received increasing interest because of the beneficial effects of prebiotics on the health of animals and humans. One of the beneficial effects of prebiotics is stimulation of immune system, which can be direct or indirect through increasing population of beneficial microbes or probiotics, especially lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, in the gut. An important mechanism of action of probiotics and prebiotics, by which they can affect the immune system, is changing the expression of cytokines. The present review tried to summarize the findings of studies that investigated the effects of prebiotics on immune system with focusing on their effects on cytokine expression. Generally, most of reviewed studies indicated beneficial effects for prebiotics in terms of improving immune system, by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while reducing the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. However, most of studies mainly considered the indirect effects of prebiotics on the immune system (through changing the composition and population of gut microbiota), and their direct effects still need to be further studied using prebiotics with different degree of polymerization in different hosts.
And of course...Gut Bugs!
How to modulate gut microbiota: diet, pre-probiotics or antibiotics? (Ponziani, et al., 2017)
The gut microbiota is involved in the maintenance of humans' health and its alterations have been associated to several intestinal and extra intestinal disorders. For this reason, there is increasing interest on gut microbiota modulation as both a preventive strategy or as a therapeutic option in different gastrointestinal, hepatic and systemic diseases. Many studies have tried to find out the impact of diet, prebiotic, probiotic and antibiotics on gut microbiota composition and function, obtaining very heterogeneous and sometimes conflicting results, especially as regards the effect on clinical outcomes. However, these preliminary data represent a promising premise for further studies that will provide a more comprehensive knowledge about the role of gut microbiota as a therapeutic target.
Prebiotic inulin-type fructans induce specific changes in the human gut microbiota (Vandeputte et al., 2017)
Contrary to the long-standing prerequisite of inducing selective (ie, bifidogenic) effects, recent findings suggest that prebiotic interventions lead to ecosystem-wide microbiota shifts. Yet, a comprehensive characterisation of this process is still lacking. Here, we apply 16S rDNA microbiota profiling and matching (gas chromatography mass spectrometry) metabolomics to assess the consequences of inulin fermentation both on the composition of the colon bacterial ecosystem and faecal metabolites profiles.
Faecal samples collected during a double-blind, randomised, cross-over intervention study set up to assess the effect of inulin consumption on stool frequency in healthy adults with mild constipation were analysed. Faecal microbiota composition and metabolite profiles were linked to the study's clinical outcome as well as to quality-of-life measurements recorded.
While faecal metabolite profiles were not significantly altered by inulin consumption, our analyses did detect a modest effect on global microbiota composition and specific inulin-induced changes in relative abundances of Anaerostipes, Bilophila and Bifidobacterium were identified. The observed decrease in Bilophila abundances following inulin consumption was associated with both softer stools and a favourable change in constipation-specific quality-of-life measures.
Ecosystem-wide analysis of the effect of a dietary intervention with prebiotic inulin-type fructans on the colon microbiota revealed that this effect is specifically associated with three genera, one of which (Bilophila) representing a promising novel target for mechanistic research.
Gut microbiota modulation and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary polyphenols in IBD: new and consolidated perspectives (Santino et al., 2017)
Polyphenols represent a great variety of compounds occurring in fruits, vegetables and plant-derived products. Dietary polyphenols have been found displaying several biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-aging activities, cardiovascular and neuro-protection, and reduction of the risk of intestinal diseases. The bio-efficacy of polyphenols is tightly linked to their bioavailability, to structural complexity and composition of food matrix in which they are present. Since most of the polyphenols are naturally stored in food matrices as glycosylated and/or variously decorated forms, they need an intestinal bio-conversion in more absorbable forms. Recent findings are highlighting the polyphenols-gut microbiota interplay in the health benefits linked to these compounds. Furthermore, the prebiotic-like activities of polyphenols on microbiota and their potential use in preventive/therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal disorders are recently emerging.
In this review, we will focus on the dietary flavonols, anthocyanins and stilbenes, as widely occurring polyphenols in human diet, their metabolism mediated by gut microbiota and their protective effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs).
The human gut microbiome as source of innovation for health: Which physiological and therapeutic outcomes could we expect? (Dore' et al., 2017)
From the moment of birth, each human being builds a microbe-host symbiosis which is key for the preservation of its health and well-being. This personal symbiotic coexistence is the result of progressive enrichments in microorganism diversity through external supplies. This diversity is nowadays massively overthrown by drastic changes related to clinical practice in birth management, environmental exposure, nutrition and healthcare behaviors. The last two generations have been the frame of massive modifications in life and food habits, with people being more and more sedentary, overfed and permeated with drugs and pollutants...The rationale for our working group has been structured around four domains of innovation that could derive from ongoing efforts in deciphering the interactions between human cells and intestinal microbiome as a central component of human health, namely: (1) development of stratification and monitoring tools; (2) identification of new target and drug discovery, as a part of our supra-genome; (4) exploitation of microbiota as a therapeutic target that can be modulated; (4) and finally as a source of live biotherapeutics and adjuvants. These four streams will exemplify how microbiota has changed the way we consider a wide range of chronic and incurable diseases and the consequences of long-lasting dysbiosis.
Nutritional stimulation of commensal oral bacteria suppresses pathogens: the prebiotic concept (Slomka et al., 2017)
To identify potential oral prebiotics that selectively stimulate commensal, albeit beneficial bacteria of the resident oral microbial community while suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Using Phenotype MicroArrays as a high-throughput method, the change in respiratory activity of 16 oral bacteria in response to 742 nutritional compounds was screened. Most promising prebiotic compounds were selected and applied in single species growth and biofilm formation assays, as well as dual species (beneficial-pathogen) competition assays.
Increased respiratory activity could not always be related to an increase in growth or biofilm formation. Six compounds were used in dual species competition assays to directly monitor if selective nutritional stimulation of the beneficial bacterium results in the suppression of the pathogenic bacterium. Two compounds, beta-methyl-d-galactoside and N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, could be identified as potential oral prebiotic compounds, triggering selectively beneficial oral bacteria throughout the experiments and shifting dual species biofilm communities towards a beneficial dominating composition at in vitro level.
Our observations support the hypothesis that nutritional stimulation of beneficial bacteria by prebiotics could be used to restore the microbial balance in the oral cavity and by this promote oral health.
Impact Of Human Aging And Modern Lifestyle On Microbiota (Gottlieb et al., 2017)
Human evolution and lifestyle changes caused by the agricultural and industrial revolutions have led to great advances in medicine and increased life expectancy, whilst also profoundly altering the ecological relationships and disease patterns of populations. Studies involving populations that still enjoy a rural way of life and with traits similar to the Paleolithic period reveal them to present a more robust, resistant and diverse gut microbiota, in comparison to highly industrialized civilizations. The human diet has expanded and broadened to include the consumption of high-calorie foods, particularly from animal sources such as game, meat and eggs. For some time, the authors have been alert to the fact that a modern lifestyle leads to reduced intake of beneficial bacteria, suggesting that nonpathogenic bacteria are being eradicated. Furthermore, therapeutic procedures, including the use of probiotics and prebiotics, have been proposed to lead to recovery of this microbiota, which is altered due to both the ageing process and lifestyle related aspects. Accordingly, this article aims to review the impact of human aging and modern lifestyle on gut microbiota, within an evolutionary, ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic context.
It's an exciting time for prebiotics. Elevated from their lowly status as a "regularity fiber," these special fibers are now being seen for their true importance...modulators of immunity, gut flora, and psychology. If anyone doubts the importance of plants and fiber in our diet, you have obviously not been keeping up. Eating a diet devoid of prebiotic fiber is like playing Russian roulette. Sooner or later, you'll pay a heavy price.