Thursday, May 7, 2015

Got Milk? Part 3: The MS Connection

Part 3 is from Gabriella Kadar, DDS, a practicing dentist from Toronto. Over her many years seeing patients, she put together a working hypothesis about a connection between lactose intolerance and multiple sclerosis (MS). The connection between lactose and MS has never been explored before.  Gab promises she will continue writing about this, here, as she finds the time.



Adapted from gotmilk.com


Zamboni's MS Theory


This story goes back to 2009 when an Italian vascular surgeon by the name of Paolo Zamboni made a huge news splash. He claimed that multiple sclerosis was caused by compromised blood drainage from the brain due to narrowing and blockage of veins in the neck. His hypothesis was based on observations made as far back as 1863 by German doctors who noticed iron deposits next to veins inside the brains of patients who had died of MS. Zamboni claimed that he'd done 10 year follow up Doppler ultrasound examinations on patients in Sardinia who he had earlier detected to have narrowed veins. He found, lo and behold, on this new visit, many of these people had in the interim developed MS.

The heartstring puller of the story was that poor Senora Zamboni suffered from MS.  Paolo adapted a surgical procedure usually used on coronary arteries for patients with heart disease.  He performed balloon angioplasty and stent placement to widen her veins and now she was cured!  At least that's what he claimed. I haven't been able to ask Mrs. Zamboni how she's feeling these days.

You can imagine how this all played out when the news flashed around the world.  Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurodegenerative disease for which there is no cure.  It strikes people when they are in their 20s and 30s, a time when most people are establishing themselves in their careers, getting married, starting families.  The social costs are enormous.  The personal costs can be devastating. Understandably, there was a huge buzz among MS patients who flocked to their neurologists asking about this Liberation Therapy.  Almost instantly clinics opened in places like Mexico, Poland and India offering the procedure and the promise of at least improvement if not an all out cure.

Zamboni's theory did not pan out



I had enough exposure to the devastating effects of MS to be sufficiently intrigued by Zamboni's ideas to sit down one day and give it a big think.  That was back in 2009.   Now there is evidence that MS patients do not have a higher incidence of narrowed veins than the general population.  There is some ongoing study going on in regards to this procedure but the enthusiasm with which it was at first embraced is over. 

From the research paper: CCSVI and MS:  no meaning, no fact. 

A condition called "chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" (CCSVI) has been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This hypothesis implies that a complex pattern of extracranial venous stenosis determines a venous reflux into the brain of MS patients, followed by increased intravenous pressure, blood-brain barrier breakdown and iron deposition into the brain parenchyma, thus triggering a local inflammatory response. In this review, we critically analyze the scientific basis of CCSVI, the current literature on the relationship between CCSVI and MS, as well as the ultrasound methodology that has been claimed to provide evidence of impaired cerebral venous drainage. We show that no piece of the CCSVI theory has a solid supportive scientific evidence. The CCSVI appears to be a rather alien condition and its existence should be definitely questioned. Finally, no proven (i.e., based on strict scientific methodology and on the rules of evidence-based medicine) therapeutic effect of the "liberation" procedure (unblocking the extracranial venous obstruction using angioplasty) has been shown up to date.

 

A geographic connection...


I went back to what are considered to be the factors associated with MS:  lots of neurologists and research papers mention low vitamin D levels as being a possible predisposing factor for developing MS.  There has been a lot of speculation that peoples living at high latitudes are more susceptible.  I took a closer look at high MS areas in the world like Scandinavia, Scotland, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand. For some reason, south and western Finland had a much higher recorded MS rate than eastern Finland.  I was intrigued. Same latitude.  What's the difference?  History reveals that the people in eastern Finland migrated there from the eastern European arctic.  They are the Sami people. The western and southern Finns are actually migrants from Sweden and Denmark because at one time this area was ruled by a Swedish king.  "So, what's the diff?" I asked myself.

Let's look at other areas of the world where vitamin D levels should not be a problem.  The island of Sardinia, Zamboni's stomping ground,  is located in the Mediterranean west of Italy.  The rate of MS among the people who live on the northern part of the island is orders of magnitude higher than along the eastern and southern parts of the island.  It turns out that the people living in the north migrated there from western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.  They were Vandals and Ostragoths.  The people living on the eastern and southern portions of the island trace back their founding ancestors to Carthage, Phoenicia and southern Italy.  So okay, they all get lots of sun, right? They all can eat as much fish as fits in their bellies so oily fish sources of vitamin D are readily available.  But the distribution of auto-immune diseases like MS are entirely skewed to the people who live on the northern part of the island.

...or a Vitamin D connection?


Ironically, a European study done to measure the vitamin D levels from north to south found that Scandinavians had higher Vitamin D blood levels than people living in southern Italy.  Surprise! Why?  During the warmest part of the day, people living in sunny climates retreat from the sun.  It's called taking a siesta.  They re-emerge later in the afternoon when the sun's heat has abated.  But those sun-loving Scandinavians?  June 21 is midsummer festival party time when the sun does not set.  Germans and Scandinavians take as much advantage as they can to spend time outdoors during summer days.  Studies note that a combination of darker skin tones and avoidance of the sun during the hottest times of the day results in lower vitamin D blood levels in southern Mediterranean people. So, really?  MS diagnoses should be higher in the south than the north.  They are not.
Meantime, reports of low vitamin D levels in MS patients are done post-diagnosis.  Anyone who knows anything about MS will tell you that because of mobility issues, these people are not out and about the same way as able bodied individuals.  Furthermore, due to de-myelination of nerves, they can't just be out in the full sun during hot summer days.  The nerve impulses slow down and their muscles become very weak.  Even taking a nice hot soaking bath can result in an inability to get out of the tub!  And the effect lasts for hours.  So yes, of course, MS patients have lower vitamin D levels than their compatriots!  It is good that neurologists are now including vitamin D supplementation for their patients, but adding vitamin D does not cure MS or reduce disability.

What did the GI's bring to the Orkneys?


Then I looked at the darling of the MS researchers:  the Orkney Islands.  The rate of MS became 'epidemic' here after the mid 20th century.  One in every 170 women has been diagnosed with MS. What was going on?  There was speculation that an infective agent had entered the population somehow.  But no matter how much researchers look in all MS populations, an infective agent like a virus or bacterium cannot be found.  What happened in the Orkneys?  During World War 1 there was a British naval base established temporarily on the Islands.  Subsequently, there was an upward blip in MS rates.  But after WW2, there was a huge jump in rates that alarmed doctors and researchers.

Let's take a closer look at what happened here.  During WW2, approximately 12,000 servicemen and women were stationed on the islands.  Some even brought their children.  The location was strategic to prevent German U-boats from getting through to Scotland, England and Ireland.  In their usual lives, Orcadians were mostly subsistence farmers.  Then suddenly there came a huge demand for farm products.  The military introduced electricity.  The farmers were given financial support to install running water and flush toilets. Excellent roads were also built.  They were selling their produce and making money.  They were able to afford to keep more cows.  Historically, these farmers were cheesemakers.  After all, they didn't have electricity or refrigeration.  But now milk was being supplied to the 'troops' and electricity also made it possible and/or desirable to drink fluid milk as well.  After all, British and American troops were milk drinkers.

But there is also a DNA aspect to the story.  25% of the DNA of Orcadians is of Norwegian origin. MS rates in Norway are also very high.  So it is not a surprise that MS rates went sky high after a change in the way in which people consumed dairy.  Eventually the dairy business on Orkney reduced considerably.  The farmers make more money selling beef cattle.  The rate of new MS diagnoses may be going down.

A worldview of MS and Lactase Persistence genes


A close look at the geographical distribution of MS in Eurasia (and let's face it, MS is largely a disease of 'white' people) overlaps wonderfully well with a geographic distribution of people who are also LP.  Now I thought, but this can't possibly be the reason.  It's too simple.  Why would being able to digest fluid milk be a problem?  Why is it that in regions where people consume fermented dairy there are no high rates of MS?  Is it because they are LNP?  No.

Map of "Lactase Persistence" gene prevalence:

Picture Credit: Archaeology: The milk revolution
 Now, compare the LP map above to a map of where MS prevails:

Picture Credit: Worldwide survey seeks MS answers

What's happening in Iran?


Data from Isfahan, Iran indicates that there is an alarming increase among women in the rate of MS (and PCOS) diagnosis.  Iranians mostly use yoghurt don't they?  Not the unfortunate women in Isfahan.  They've been encouraged to drink low fat fluid milk to prevent unwanted weight gain.


Isfahan province of Iran is now globally well known for its high prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Fifteen years ago, this fact was in spite of primary north–south based expectations (MS gradient hypothesis) in which Isfahan, as a part of Iran, could only be a low-risk area with prevalence of less than 5/100,000.

And what about Crete?

Over the past three decades the incidence of MS on the island of Crete has skyrocketed.  There have been very detailed studies done on why this may have happened.  It's higher among urban dwellers, higher among smokers, higher among women using contraceptives BUT cow milk consumption has gone up tremendously.  If it would be smoking, then the MS rate in China would have also skyrocketed.  In fact, as smoking has become less and less popular in the developed world, the rate of people smoking in the developing world has tremendously increased.  The tobacco manufacturers are desperately seeking new markets for their products.  But in those areas, MS has not made a jump in incidence rates.  It's not the birth control pill, because men don't take it.  Remember: it's where you lived for the first 15 years of life that counts.  There aren't many children taking birth control pills.

On the island of Crete and generally in Greece, fluid milk consumption had gone up signficantly due to the importation of pasteurized, oftentimes UHT or just refrigerated milk.  The EU is helping out in this regards making the movement of not only people but goods much easier.  A glance at the map indicates that MS rates in Greece are high.  Not as high as Scandinavia.  Not yet, anyway.  Goat milk was the primary source of dairy in Greece.  Goats don't produce that much milk and besides, farmers make more money from selling cheese.

And in the US?


On purpose I have not gone into the rates of MS in North America.  The indigenous population of the Americas were LNP and did not have access to any form of dairy.  The movement of peoples from Europe to both Canada and the USA meant that LP genes were brought over.  Cattle were imported to the Americas from Europe.  MS rates in areas of both countries settled largely by LP immigrants is high.  In Canada, the provinces of Nova Scotia and Alberta are recorded as having very high rates.  The northern states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota are also very high MS.  The former have high rates of individuals of Scottish, English, Irish  ethnic background.  The latter are home to the descendents of German and Scandinavian immigrants.  Wisconsin, especially, is famous for its dairy farms.

Conclusion:


MS epidemiologists have ascertained that a person, who we can presume is LP,  lives for the first 15 years of life in a high MS region, makes them more susceptible to developing MS even if they move to an area that is low MS.  They retain the same risk as their location of origin.  If someone spends the first 15 years of life in a low MS area, then if they move to a high MS location, their risk of developing MS remains the same as their location of origin.  What's going on here?  High MS areas are also high LP and high childhood fluid milk consumption areas.  Low MS regions are also high LNP and/or low fluid milk consumption areas.  An LP individual would probably not have as much ready access to fluid milk in these regions.  It's not part of the 'food culture'.

What would I recommend?  Stop the lactose consumption at the age of weaning. If the child enjoys fluid milk, use lactose free milk. Even better:  explore other options like cultured buttermilk and yoghurt.  They are probiotic.  I am not anti-milk at all.  I think it is a good source of protein and fat.  In developed countries, milk is a convenient source of nutrition especially for growing children.  But if someone may have close relatives with auto-immune disease, cut the lactose.  There is more, much more to the auto-immune disease picture than just MS.  Stay tuned.  


In Part 4, we'll see what Gemma has to say about Gabriella's hypothesis!


29 comments:

  1. Replies
    1. There's a lot more. Stay tuned.

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    2. As to correlation and causation...Gab noticed the correlation several years ago and has been kind of sitting on the information, watching trends and reading. When she mentioned it to us, we started doing the old rabbit hole trick and found there is indeed much more than simple correlation of MS rates to an area on a map!

      But the correlation of MS to certain geographical locations has caught the eye of many researchers over the last several decades. Many blamed Vit D, but too many other areas in sunny places. They blamed other things, but each idea hits a brick wall.

      MS is a true disease with "unknown etiology". They don't know, and are not afraid to admit it. I'm 99% certain that Gab figured it out. Her hypothesis has never been tested, and we can find only one other paper that even mentioned lactose. A couple blamed "milk", but were looking at things like butyrate, pathogens, and again, Vit D. And, with those, all had holes...ie. a positive correlation with milk, but negative with butter--can't be butyrate! What could it be? What's in milk but not butter? What also happens in those Northern areas where people are genetically gifted to guzzle milk?

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  2. so heres my take......................................................... yeast. cassien in the milk is turned to yeast due to pasteurized. Bio hackers have turned yeast to cheese and cassien to yeast. etc. Many in most diseases have low vit D levels. your A-hole doc will give you shots or large one week doses of d2 50,000 IU which is .. When I was sick I removed SOY based vitamins --and vit D soy based ..many things based with soy are grown from aspergillus mold , I switched to lanolin based d3 with olive oil...some D3 is soy based as well lanolin is a base for steriods..lower inflammation-- but a natural form.. steroid lower inflammation read the different types :) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steroid

    Vitd2 is made from MOLD -----in a lab ergosterol. Think Protozoa bacterias as well.....uses ergosterol..

    vitD3 is made mostly from lanolin
    a sterol, C 30 H 50 O, formed from squalene epoxide, that is a precursor in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and is a component of lanolin
    lanosterol under enzyme catalysis leads to the core structure of steroids. 14-Demethylation of lanosterol by CYP51 eventually yields cholesterol

    my cholesterol has gone up as Ive gotten better,,,, but in a different way. In the 3 years total LDL particles <--- total but low small LDL p down HDL up..

    In the months I used plantain starch and ALMOND MILK ---added with chalk and D2 ( mold )
    my AMCA went back up... some point to the starch , I point to the D2 and chalk my HDL came down some and my small LDL-P shot up( which I say d2 has a role in heart diease)... which I say is more of the leader in heart diease
    Ergosterol which ( D2) is made from... is an irritant to respiratory tract. Ingestion of large amounts can cause hypercalcemia which is seen in heart diease

    http://nutristart.com/vitamin-d2-vs-d3/
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergosterol
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanosterol

    Lower levels of aspergillus molds in celiac patients blood while following a yeast free diet specifically avoiding bakers and brewers yeast has shown lowered gluten sensitivity disease activity

    Vit D2 given to most with health problems is made from Ergosterol is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.many fungi and protozoa cannot survive without ergosterol
    antifungal drugs
    Amphotericin B, an antifungal drug, targets ergosterol.<-------------------------It binds physically to ergosterol within the membrane, thus creating a polar pore in fungal membranes. This causes ions (predominantly potassium and protons) and other molecules to leak out, which will kill the cell

    Miconazole, itraconazole, and clotrimazole
    work in a different way, inhibiting synthesis of ergosterol from lanosterol Ergosterol is a smaller molecule than lanosterol; it is synthesized by combining two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate, a 15-carbon-long terpenoid, into lanosterol, which has 30 carbons. Then, two methyl groups are removed, making ergosterol. The "azole" class of antifungal agents inhibit the enzyme that performs these demethylation steps in the biosynthetic pathway between lanosterol and ergosterol.[citation needed]
    lanosterol;

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  3. Elaboration of lanosterol under enzyme catalysis leads to the core structure of steroids. 14-Demethylation of lanosterol by CYP51 eventually yields cholesterol
    steroids reduce inflammation
    Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid, which is the compound from which all steroids are derived. Elaboration of lanosterol under enzyme catalysis leads to the core structure of steroids. 14-Demethylation of lanosterol by CYP51 eventually yields cholesterol
    a sterol, C 30 H 50 O, formed from squalene epoxide, that is a precursor in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and is a component of lanolin
    Protozoa, including Trichomonas and Leishmania are inhibited by drugs that target ergosterol synthesis and function
    lyme disease is a protozoa all with it loose VIT D and are given D@ yet dont get better
    Ergosterol ( D2) is an irritant to skin, eyes, and the respiratory tract. Ingestion of large amounts can cause hypercalcemia
    why I say it kills YOU D2 we see studies showing to much calcium giving heart disease ,
    vit d2 vitamin D2 is less well absorbed and utilized by the body, and it also interferes with, and actually reduces, levels of circulating D3 in the body. This conclusion is confirmed again by a very recent study released in February of 2014. But this study added one further bit of bad news when it was revealed that vitamin D2 was also linked to causing muscle damage after intense exercise.

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  4. I say the same FOR MS.......................

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  5. Very interesting. I really enjoyed reading this and am looking forward to the next installment!

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  6. Since the rate of milk consumption in the U.S. had been decreasing since the 1950's has MS also decreased? Also, any idea why the milk/MS relationship does not hold true for Kazakhstan which is has very high per capita milk consumption (equal to USA)?... is it not pasteurized cow milk (buffalo or camel) perhaps and/or more cultured milks? I also saw that both India and Pakistan consume lots of milk but the production is quite different. Much is from buffalo and from most of the dairy production comes from extremely small producers - perhaps much of it is not pasteurized? Argentina is another country that does not seem to correlate strongly to this hypothesis.

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    Replies
    1. Kazakhstan reportedly also has high LP which makes sense given it's history of nomadic herdsmen.

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    2. Brad, there are cultural reasons for why MS is relatively undertreated in western India and Pakistan. Families don't want people to know they've got a 'disabled' daughter. The MS clinics in India are largely treating the men. Women are hidden away. They are not taken for treatment. Men go because they are the primary breadwinners. Statistics for MS in cities of western India are as high as in European countries where MS is more common. Yet, overall, the country stat for India is very low. This is partly why stats in 'developing' countries are not terribly reliable.

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    3. Here is a 2013 review of MS in all of Europe, Kazakhstan is unfortunately considered 'Asia' for this study. When I was stationed in Kyrgyzstan, I saw lots of people drinking fermented mares milk sold on the street. We went to orphanages there, and I don't recall seeing the kids drinking milk. No idea about overall milk consumption in those countries.

      Anyway, this paper is a good review of MS in Europe, but it mostly describes the difficulty in getting good information.

      http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/13/128

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    4. During USSR, Kazakhstan was a soviet republic. These days it's independent. I don't think any data coming from Khazakhstan in regards to MS incidence would be accurate if it even exists. Also people in Central Asia ferment milk. That's different.

      Mares have been selectively bred in Kazakhstan for high milk volume production. But the milk is not consumed as 'sweet milk'.

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  7. Others’ Milk - Why don’t we consume dairy products from mammals that aren’t cows?

    http://www.slate.com/articles/life/food/2012/07/why_don_t_we_drink_other_animals_milk_the_dairy_of_camels_buffalo_pigs_sheep_and_goats_.html

    The sustainability challenge to the dairy sector e The growing importance
    of non-cattle milk production worldwide

    http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gaukhar_Konuspayeva/publication/271636028_The_sustainability_challenge_to_the_dairy_sector__The_growing_importance_of_non-cattle_milk_production_worldwide/links/54d0e9440cf20323c21a0ffc.pdf

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    Replies
    1. Brad, thanks for the Slate article. I had the best laughs of the day, not negative ones. Maybe if they gave the sows a bucket of ale they'd get a bit more docile for milking? I saw that in an episode of 'All Creatures Great and Small'. The sow didn't want to let her piglets nurse. The vet gave her a bucket of ale and it was 'a go' after that.

      Sheep cheese? Make me eccentric then: only sheep feta for me. Soft, creamy and delicious.

      I loved the article. In India though, although, yes, they have water buffalo, the lowly cow is mostly the source of milk. Water buffalo are lazy ass critters. They've got them in Hungary on the 'puszta'. Unlike cattle they love to roll around in mud. They are some ugly. There's at least one farm here in Ontario that raises water buffalo and sells stuff like yoghurt and mozarella. I guess the food snobs are buying it but since it's four times the price of regular yoghurt, it didn't sell in my neighbourhood. I bought a tub and didn't think it was irresistable. Neither is Ewe yoghurt for that matter. Ewe milk is good except I get the 'predictable' from it. Alas. Goat milk for some odd reason doesn't create quite the intestinal ruckus.

      But seriously, that article was fabulous. Thanks again.

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    2. Speaking of ale, in Scotland it was traditional to give new mothers a bottle of Stout to bring in their milk. I recently had my husband deliver one to a new mother I know, she was horrified. Alcohol! Ooops.

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    3. Cukey, I had kid number two at Womens' College Hospital in Toronto: I asked for beer. Got three cans per day!! LOL!

      After kid number one, I toasted with champagne. Then dropped by friends (6 hours later.... did better than the Duchess of Cambridge on this one) and had a gin and tonic. Kid in my arms of course. Mind you, we don't really know why Kate looked so well and relaxed do we?

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  8. I want to bring up one point about enzymes that is frequently overlooked. They catalyze reactions in both the forward and reverse. Thus, lactase hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose, but it can also transfer the galactose to an oligosaccharide or some other metabolite. An example is the classic lac operon beta-galactosidase from E. coli. Beta-galactosidase converts lactose to allolactose and that new sugar is actually used instead of lactose as a signal to control expression of the lac operon. Another example is the production of dental plaque fructan from the fructose in sucrose.

    My point is that persistent production of lactase, plus ample lactose in liquid mild, could permit the intestinal epithelium to produce galactosides to alter the immune system. It may not be just lactose. These additional galactosides may also be important in breastfed infants and lactating mothers. Bifidus factor is human milk oligosaccharides, based on lactose. Maybe you guys should chat with Lars Bode (HMOs) at UCSD.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. "It may not be just lactose."

      I think we are all saying the same thing, but, the "input" we can control is the overfeeding of external lactose from mammal milk, which should probably be stopped at weaning. Another "input" we control is fiber. Babies are weaned on a low-fiber, high cow lactose diet.

      My view of this from a dietary/gut stand-point is that we are doing things all wrong, leading to AI disease in many.

      I still am amazed by the similarities between HMOs persorbing into the blood and removing pathogens. Resistant starch can take the place of HMOs post-weaning, persorbing readily into the blood. So far as I know, cow's milk has nothing that persorbs into the blood similar to HMO and RS.

      (HMO = Human Milk Oligosaccharides, found in human milk)

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    2. Tim, right on. 750 ml of cow milk per day displaces a lot of other potential dietary inputs. Giving kids milk to drink three times a day is a lazy way of feeding the kids. It's like fastfood: not good practice.

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    3. This seems to be making the assumption that consuming milk is not beneficial to children via it's highly growth promoting effects. Did I miss where that evidence was presented? I seem to have missed where it was shown that milk is like fastfood, ie "junk".

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    4. Keep in mind that every mammal has decided via adaptation/selection that this "lazy way of feeding" and the relatively similar nutrient content of milk from various species is ideal for health and growth of the young. The reason for curtailing this milk feeding at an early age may have been more to do with maximizing the quantity of offspring per female lifespan.

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  9. Correlation between milk and dairy product consumption and multiple sclerosis prevalence: a worldwide study http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1291895

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    Replies
    1. Thank you, we have seen this paper. I am looking at it in the next post (Part 4).

      The abstract sounds promising, but inside... the authors search for the MS triggering factor and assume that "butyrate is the candidate for a dairy product toxin."

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  10. This is all very interesting, and I thank you for writing up your thoughts and research. I look forward to the next post(s). I just delivered a baby recently in one of those high risk regions of the USA: right on the border of North Dakota/South Dakota. So following diligently.

    Importantly, so for real life application, long-fermented yogurt, cheeses, and butter (regardless of mammal source), based on your studies, seem less likely to bring about MS?

    And not so importantly, this may be a stupid question/thought. I've really not read or pondered on any of this much. But, I recently read a book discussing the lack of DNAase I and lack of proteases as a potential cause of autoimmune disease. Would this play in at all? I'm not sure that I see that it could as nicely as your lactose theory. Would there be small amounts of DNA which would be more available in milk than in cheese/ferments/the fat portion? Or would there be a difference in the proteins after fermentation/less protein in the fat portions? Had you read/heard of this lack of protease/DNAase I?

    And lastly, why would they feel that butyrate could be a potential cause? ~~Terri F

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    Replies
    1. @Terri

      The above mentioned paper is very interesting, the authors did a good job looking at the statistics of dairy product consumption and finding the correlation of MS to fluid milk. But as to pointing to a factor that should be responsible, the only thing they did concerning butyrate was that they "felt" it. Not many arguments presented.

      Re DNAase: not sure if this answer your question, but isn't automimmunity related to NETosis and insufficient clearance of apoptotic bodies? Like if your house is invaded by mice or cockroaches, so you go and start killing them, but leave their dead bodies on the floor, lying around. No cleaning.

      See Clearance of Apoptotic Bodies, NETs, and Biofilm DNA: Implications for Autoimmunity (2014).

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  11. Terri, fermented dairy is also better for prevention of type 1 diabetes. We haven't got into that yet but we will.

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  12. Keep in mind in a BLUE ZONE..... like Sardinia, many use goat or sheep milk NOT cow. They also use an un- pasteurized milk. <------- there diet is low in yeasts , there bread risen with bacteria , or they eat flat bread with out yeast. Using un pasteurized milk "" good bacteria "" work with the nature enzymes and cassien , lactose to break it down. Store milk is a worthless product adding to disease again added vitD 2 squirted in vit d2 ergocalciferol (made from lab made mold) aspergillus read for your self.. So you have a milk product loaded with cassien which can turn to yeast... plus added mold D2 ergocalciferol lots of lactose and nothing in it to break down the product. (missing enzymes and good bacteria) Love to see a study on someone DRINKING store milk and fixing them-self.... When you dig its a joint CO-op between bacteria and yeast... they work as partners , missing bacteria , high yeast..... one side blames bacteria the other side ---when you jump the fence from standard medicine blames yeast.

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  13. add in ones genes and how they play with , bacteria or yeasts .....you have problems with starches, sugars yeasts... why one diet doesnt work for all... low carb, high carb... paleo , kenetic ... tons of starch .... For me personally milk, especially store milk plays bad with my genes..... ADDED MOLD vitd2 , high cassien (converts to yeasts) highly digests as sugar. I have several FUT2/.card 15 genes mutated RED and several gluten genes for celiac alpha and beta with extra betas.. foods can be simular to yeasts or bacteria .... As ive said why you see so many spiral down the toliet --- gluten problems then dairy and then soy. The reason they all have a link... cassien yeast ...soy aspergillus mold and gluten --hwp1 *yeast/fungus similar in structure -- when you see people get sick ...they slowly stack up all three problems...and some add starch as well... but genes play a large role here why not every one , crumbles apart. Look at diabetes , MS, celiac , coltis , crohns etc you dig and trace back genes -- you ll see how theres many ties in the HLA DQ area

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  14. Foods.... can be similar to BACTERIA or YEASTS... take fruit , theres many wild yeasts within them for me a diet low in fruits and higher in veggies plays well. I am also type O blood , add in my genetics -- HLA dq 2.5 and CARD15/FUT2 defects its a no wonder , I do well on low fruits ., high veggies...fish meats nuts ... certain starches.. Type O blood generally has lower bifiido...bacteria ...they also have higher yeast amounts in studies, .... bifido in babies tends to help break down milk... all sick babies are missing bifido longum. Bifido helps block ecoli ....as well yeasts.

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